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  • Purism

    1918-1925 Purism Purism is a style of modern art and architecture of the 20th century. It was founded in 1918 with the manifesto "Après le cubisme" by Charles-Edouart Jeanneret (Le Corbusier) and Amédée Ozenfant and is characterised by clear geometric forms, a limited choice of colours and a selection of a few everyday objects as pictorial subjects. The 1918 pamphlet Apres le Cubisme (After Cubism), which is also regarded as the manifesto of Purism, marks its beginning. In Apres le Cubisme, Le Corbusier and Ozenfant criticise the current currents of synthetic and Orphic Cubism as too decorative and ornamental. A revised manifesto of Purism appeared in 1921 under the title "Purism" in the journal L'Esprit Nouveau. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Danube School

    1530-1580 Danube School Danube School is a controversial term for a circle of painters of the first third of the 16th century who were active in Bavaria and the northern part of Austria (i.e. along the Danube). The term school is misleading, as the majority of the artists counted in it never had a teacher-pupil relationship with each other. Their grouping together under this collective term was rather based on the stylistic features they had in common. The Danube School is usually regarded as a link between the late Gothic and the Renaissance. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber are usually regarded as the main representatives. Other representatives are, for example, Hans Pruckendorfer, Rueland Frueauf the Younger, the early Lucas Cranach the Elder, Jörg Breu the Elder, Erhard Altdorfer, Michael Ostendorfer, Georg Lemberger, the Historia Master, the Master of Mühldorf, the Master of the Miracles of Mariazell, the Master of the Pulkau Altar and Nikolaus Kirberger. In the field of carving, for example, Augustin Hirschvogel, and in the field of graphic art, Master IP is close to the Danube School. Apart from Regensburg and Passau, their places of activity are Vienna and some Austrian monasteries such as Melk and Sankt Florian. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Realism

    1830-1960 Realism In art history, realism (from Latin realis 'concerning the thing'; res: "thing, thing") refers to a new conception of art that began in Europe in the mid-19th century and turned against representations of classicism and romanticism. The appropriation of reality by the artist and its subsequent transformation into a work of art as well as its political connotation are characteristic of realism. It propagates everydayness and objectivity. Its best-known representative was the French painter Gustave Courbet (1819-1877), who appropriated the concept of realist art, which was still very vague and imprecisely defined at the time, and used it for his art because of its provocative effect. The content of his works had a formative effect on the term realism. Courbet's main concern was to create living art by drawing on his knowledge of (artistic) tradition and his own individuality. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Baroque

    1575-1770 Baroque Baroque painting is painting associated with the Baroque cultural movement. The movement is often associated with absolutism, the Counter-Reformation and the Catholic Revival, but the existence of significant Baroque art and architecture in non-absolutist and Protestant states throughout Western Europe underlines its widespread popularity. Baroque painting encompasses a wide range of styles, with most important and significant paintings dating from around 1600, extending throughout the 17th century and into the early 18th century. In its most typical manifestations, Baroque art is characterised by great drama, rich, deep colours and intense effects of light and shadow, but the classicism of French Baroque painters such as Poussin and Dutch genre painters such as Vermeer is also subsumed under this term, at least in English. In contrast to Renaissance art, which usually showed the moment before an event, Baroque artists chose the most dramatic point, the moment when the action was taking place: Michelangelo, working in the High Renaissance, shows his David calmly and serenely before he fights Goliath; Bernini's Baroque David is caught at the moment when he hurls the stone at the giant. Baroque art was meant to evoke emotion and passion rather than the calm rationality that had been valued in the Renaissance. Important painters of the Baroque period in Italy are the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci, Michelangelo da Caravaggio, Guido Reni and Giovanni Tiepolo, in Spain Bartolomé Murillo and Diego Velázquez, in France Nicolas Poussin, Claude Vignon and Claude Lorrain, in Germany Adam Elsheimer, Cosmas Damian Asam, Johannes Zick and his son Januarius, Joseph Wannenmacher, in Tyrol Stephan Kessler and in the Netherlands Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt and Vermeer. Caravaggio is an heir to the humanist painting of the High Renaissance. His realistic depiction of the human figure, painted directly from life and dramatically lit against a dark background, shocked his contemporaries and opened a new chapter in the history of painting. In Baroque painting, scenes are often dramatised with chiaroscuro lighting effects; this can be seen in works by Rembrandt, Vermeer, Le Nain and La Tour. The Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck developed a graceful but imposing style of portraiture that was particularly influential in England. The prosperity of 17th century Holland led to an enormous production of art by a large number of painters, most of whom were highly specialised and painted only genre scenes, landscapes, still lifes, portraits or history paintings. Technical standards were very high and Dutch Golden Age painting created a new repertoire of subjects that was very influential until the arrival of modernism. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Precisionism

    1913-1935 Precisionism Precisionism was a style of American painting that emerged after the First World War and reached its peak in the interwar period. Precisionism was part of American Realism and strongly influenced by Cubism and Futurism. Like other realists, the representatives of Precisionism consciously set themselves apart from traditional landscape painting and historicising, but also abstract art. They mainly chose large cities, industrial complexes and other technical installations as motifs. Because they worked with precise geometric shapes and perfect colour gradients without impurities, they were also called Sterilists (Sterilists) and Immaculates (the Immaculate). The depictions testify to a growing self-confidence in American industrial society as well as a certain admiration for their buildings, but social commentary (unlike in the Ashcan School) was not a central element of Precisionism. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Environment

    1955-today Environment The Environment is a term borrowed from American English in the late 1950s for artistic works that deal with the relationship between object and environment. The environment can become part of the artwork. The intellectual foundations for overcoming the separation between art and life, which artists repeatedly strived for in the 20th century, were already laid in Dadaism and Surrealism. In his Dadaist Manifesto, Richard Huelsenbeck formulated in 1918: "Life appears as a simultaneous jumble of sounds, colours and mental rhythms, which [...] is taken over in its entire brutal reality." In parallel, Marcel Duchamp exhibited a urinal as a work of art in New York in 1917, the Fountain. An industrially manufactured object, the ready-made, was declared a work of art, see also object art. The term environment appeared in the USA at the end of the 1950s in the context of the artists of Pop Art and Happenings. George Segal called his white plaster figures in a suggested environment "environmental sculptures". Claes Oldenburg became known for his oversized replicas of edibles from "the store". Edward Kienholz and Duane Hanson provoke through the hyperrealism of their figures, whereby Kienholz creates isolated walk-in scenes as environments, while Hanson places human figures (e.g. Woman with Shopping Trolley, 1970), isolated from the original environment, abruptly in the spatial situation of a museum or gallery. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Classicism

    1770-1830 Classicism / Classicist Painting Classicist painting refers to a style of art inspired by Greco-Roman antiquity and the Italian Renaissance. Compared to other preceding, simultaneous or subsequent art movements, such as Baroque, Rococo, Romanticism or Impressionism, the ideal of Classicism consists in uniformity and harmony, also in a certain rational sobriety, objectivity and austerity. As an epochal term, Classicism is generally understood in German to mean painting between about 1750 or 1760 and about 1820. However, the term "classicism" is not completely unambiguous, since there were always classicist currents, especially in painting, from the 16th century onwards, which either existed simultaneously as a counter-current to other aesthetic ideals - such as Baroque or Tenebrism in particular - or were also temporarily in the foreground. Examples of this in the 17th century are the classicist Baroque of the so-called Bolognese School - whose influence reached Rome early on - with protagonists such as Guido Reni, Domenichino, Albani, Poussin or Carlo Maratta. Influenced by painters such as Poussin or the landscape painter Claude Lorrain, this classicist Baroque reached France before 1650, where it was elevated to the status of an ideal under Louis XIV (see → classicisme), not least as a counter-image to the highly animated, exuberant and emotional Baroque of Italian or Flemish influence (Rubens). For this reason, the epoch from about 1760 to 1820, especially in France (and also in other countries), is not called classicisme, but néo-classicisme, because of the classical art of the 17th century. Representatives of actual classicism in France are Joseph-Marie Vien, Jacques-Louis David, Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes, François Gérard, Antoine-Jean Gros and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres; in Germany Anton Raphael Mengs, Angelika Kauffmann, Jakob Asmus Carstens, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein and Gottlieb Schick; in Italy, Pompeo Batoni, Giuseppe Velasco, Andrea Appiani, Gaspare Landi, Felice Giani, Vincenzo Camuccini and Luigi Sabatelli; in Spain, Francisco Bayeu and Francisco de Goya (in his early work). BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • School of Pont-Aven

    1886-1896 School of Pont-Aven The Pont-Aven School was formed by a group of French painters around Paul Gauguin at the end of the 19th century. 19th century. It was located both in the village of Pont-Aven, situated in the south of Brittany, and in the nearby village of Le Pouldu on the Laïta. The name for the artists' colony came into being later. The painters' works are characterised by the use of pure, luminous colours and are classified as Post-Impressionist. As early as the mid-19th century, painters such as Camille Corot and Eugène Boudin, as well as poets such as Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac, had visited Brittany, as its rugged, unspoilt landscape offered them themes for their works. Paul Gauguin stayed repeatedly in Pont-Aven from 1886 onwards. Other artists followed - such as Émile Bernard and Paul Sérusier. They sought to overcome Impressionism. The Pont-Aven school gave rise to the art movements of Synthetism and Cloisonism, which represented a counter-movement to Impressionism. Their works were highly regarded by the Nabis, the artists of Symbolism and Expressionism. The emphasis on contours and colour values while abandoning open-air painting was a concern of the Pont-Aven school. The artists created their pictures partly from memory. What they saw was reduced to the essentials, so that form and colour reflected the painters' emotional moods independently of reality. Gauguin left the Breton artists' colony in 1891 and moved to Tahiti. The Pont-Aven school remained in existence until around 1896. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Body Art

    1960-today Body Art Body Art is an artistic concept of the 20th century. This art movement emerged in the 1960s from the Happening and Fluxus movements. The body serves both as an art medium and as an art object. It often involves performances, photography and video art. The focus can be on the figurative aspect of the human body, the human skin as a surface or painting ground, or the action or interaction between the bodies. Body art can therefore be close to figurative art, sculpture, action art, painting or graphic art, but also to conceptual art. The artists sometimes inflict injuries and pain on themselves, thus treating their bodies as "material". Well-known representatives of Body Art include Marina Abramović, Chris Burden, Vito Acconci, Günter Brus, Dennis Oppenheim, Gina Pane, Pippilotti Rist, Carolee Schneemann, Annegret Soltau, Urs Lüthi, Jürgen Klauke, Rudolf Schwarzkogler, Peter Gilles, Valie Export, Timm Ulrichs, but also the representatives of Viennese Actionism at the end of the 1960s. The essential characteristic of body art is to attack the viewer. The aesthetics of the artwork is determined by the extent to which the viewer's habits of thought are upset and he is brought out of his passive behaviour. Shock and disgust effects are deliberately provoked. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Appropriation Art_Video

    1985-today Appropriation Art (Video) Appropriation art is a form of expression in contemporary artistic creation. It is usually classified as conceptual art. In a narrower sense, Appropriation Art is when artists consciously and strategically copy the works of other artists, whereby the act of copying and the result itself are to be understood as art (otherwise one speaks of plagiarism or forgery). Strategies include "borrowing, stealing, appropriating, inheriting, assimilating.... Being influenced, inspired, dependent, hunted, obsessed, quoting, rewriting, revising, redesigning.... Revision, re-evaluation, variation, version, interpretation, imitation, approximation, improvisation, supplement, accretion, prequel... Pastiche, paraphrase, parody, piracy, forgery, homage, mimicry, travesty, shan-zhai, echo, allusion, intertextuality and karaoke." In a broader sense, Appropriation Art can be any art that deals with found aesthetic material, e.g. advertising photography, press photography, archival images, films, videos, etc. These can be exact, detailed copies; however, manipulations of the size, colour, material and medium of the original are also often made in the copy. This appropriation in Appropriation Art can be done with critical intent or as homage. Appropriation was introduced through the Pictures exhibition curated by Douglas Crimp at New York's Artists Space in the autumn of 1977. The early artists selected were Sherrie Levine, Jack Goldstein, Phillip Smith, Troy Brauntuch and Robert Longo. Cindy Sherman had had a solo show at Artists Space the year before; she was mentioned in Douglas Crimp's revised version of the catalogue text that appeared in the Marxist art magazine October in 1979. The Whitney Museum of American Art in New York and the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles held major retrospectives of the Pictures Generation in 1989, and in 2009 the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York showed the early work of thirty artists from the 1970s New York art scene in the exhibition The Pictures Generation, 1974-1984, curated by Douglas Eklund. This Pictures Generation includes Louise Lawler, Barbara Kruger, Richard Prince, Sarah Charlesworth, and from the art scene in Buffalo (New York State) came Robert Longo, Cindy Sherman, Nancy Dwyer, Charles Clough and Michel Zwack. The most important "hotbed" of the movement was John Baldessari's seminar at the California Institute of the Arts in Los Angeles, where David Salle, Jack Goldstein, James Welling, Matt Mullican, Barbara Bloom, Ross Bleckner and Eric Fischl had studied. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Romanticism

    1790-1840 Romanticism Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that began in Europe towards the end of the 18th century and lasted until around 1848. The cultural-historical term Biedermeier has become a synonym for Romanticism in art historiography, especially in Austria, although recent exhibitions have emphasised the different forms of expression that were cultivated in the Habsburg monarchy between Milan and Prague. Historically and politically, Romanticism was the epoch of great social and martial upheavals: It began with the French Revolution in 1789 and the Napoleonic Wars, continued through the Congress of Vienna and the Battle of Waterloo to the revolutionary year of 1848. At the centre of Romanticism is the self with its individual feelings and thoughts. The art of the early 19th century is characterised by an emphasis on the affects and individuality, plus the glorification of the past and nature, with the Middle Ages giving way to the Classical period. Romanticism is interpreted partly as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the social changes brought about by the French Revolution and partly to the scientific rationalisation of nature in the emerging sciences. One of the central concepts of Romanticism is freedom (and the struggle for freedom). Romanticism thus had an influence not only on the arts, but also on politics and education, the emergence of nationalism and liberalism. The forerunners of Romanticism - Johann Heinrich Füssli and Francisco de Goya or the writers of the Sturm und Drang - already referred to feelings as the source of aesthetic experience, although they did not exclude horror and terror, along with admiration and awe, and thus helped to found "Black Romanticism". Individual imagination, the sublime and the beauty of nature were discussed as new aesthetic categories. In the second half of the 19th century, realism and impressionism replaced romanticism. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

  • Biedermeier

    1815-1848 Biedermeier Biedermeier refers to the period from the end of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the beginning of the bourgeois revolution in 1848 in the states of the German Confederation. In political history, the term Biedermeier is linked to the concept of the Restoration, which refers to the development of state policy after the end of the Napoleonic era and the Congress of Vienna. The term is significant as an epochal designation in cultural history, but as such it is hardly clearly contoured, since many associations with Biedermeier originate from the later 19th century and must often be regarded as (re)projected attributions. The term Vormärz refers to the opposing movement belonging to the same period, which sought political revolutionary change and found expression in literary figures such as Georg Büchner and Heinrich Heine, among others. The term Biedermeier refers on the one hand to the bourgeoisie's own culture and art that emerged during this period, for example in domestic music, interior design and also in clothing fashion, and on the other hand to the literature of the time, which is often labelled "homely" or "conservative". The flight into the idyll and the private sphere is considered typical. The visual arts of the Biedermeier period were dominated by genre and landscape painting, but also by portraiture. Religious and historical motifs were almost completely absent. The style was realistic, the pictures often resembled a photographic image. The model was Dutch painting of the 17th century. However, the desired result was a pseudo-realism, for reality was gladly idealised and exaggerated; sometimes the painting overlapped with late Romanticism. The watercolour technique reached a very high level; lithography was now increasingly used for book illustrations. The painters Moritz von Schwind, Friedrich Gauermann, Eduard Gaertner, the early work of Adolph Menzel, Ludwig Richter, Carl Spitzweg, Josef Kriehuber, Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Peter Fendi and Joseph Anton Koch are regarded as visual artists of the Biedermeier period. Richter was in particular demand as an illustrator, illustrating around 150 books. A special feature of the Biedermeier period were the so-called room paintings, detailed depictions of individual living rooms. In glass and porcelain painting, the era is associated with the house painters Samuel Mohn and Anton Kothgasser. View glass is also typical of this period. BUY THE BOOK READ MORE ABOUT THIS PERIOD Welcome to Our Community! Dive into what makes us truly unique. Here, we provide a glimpse into our vibrant ecosystem, highlighting the special qualities that distinguish us. Whether it's our dedication to nurturing creativity, building connections, or showcasing extraordinary talents – we celebrate what you bring to the table. Enhance your experience with us by adding visual elements to your profile, making it even more engaging. Join us to create a space where inspiration thrives and connections grow deeper. REGISTER NOW Be one of the owners of this limited edition and buy one of the 3333 hand signed books! BOOK

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