Suprematism (from the Old Latin supremus, "the highest") is a modernist style of visual art, related to Futurism and Constructivism. It originated in Russia and was valid from 1913 until the beginning of the 1930s.
The Russian artist Kazimir Malevich understood Suprematism as the primacy of pure sensation over representational nature.
Suprematism was developed by Malevich out of the ideas of Futurism after his Neo-Primitivist and Cubo-Futurist phase in 1912/1913. Mainly through El Lissitzky, Suprematism influenced De Stijl and the Bauhaus. It is the first consistently non-representational art movement. Non-representational art differs from abstract art in that its forms are not abstractions (essentialisations/simplifications) of visible objects. Suprematism is a constructive art movement freed from references to objects; it places the reduction to the simplest geometric forms in the service of illustrating the 'highest' human principles of knowledge. Among the main works of Suprematism are Malevich's paintings Black Square on a White Ground (1915), Red Square (1915) and White Square on a White Ground (1919). In 1915/1916, the art exhibition 0.10 was held in Saint Petersburg.
Parallel to the historical upheavals in Russia from 1905 to 1920, Russian artists sought new ways of expressing their image of the world. A wide variety of art movements emerged in very rapid succession, taking up the art trends of Western Europe and developing them further. Particularly influential was an art exhibition initiated in 1908 by the Russian magazine Das Goldene Vlies, which featured works by the most important contemporary Western European artists. Among those represented were Henri Matisse, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Georges Braque, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Kees van Dongen, Alfred Sisley and Pierre Bonnard.
This was followed in 1911 by an exhibition of the group "Jack of Diamonds", which involved a large number of artists of the Russian avant-garde and established the development of Russian painting and sculpture towards abstraction. The exhibition "0,10", which followed in 1915 and in which Suprematist paintings were exhibited for the first time, marked the breakthrough to non-objective art. In addition to Malevich, the exhibitors included Vladimir Tatlin, Nadezhda Udaltsova, Lyubov Popova and Ivan Puni.
How inspiring these encounters were for the development of modern Russian art can be seen in the artistic development of Malevich, who found his way to Cubofuturism through the influence of the French Impressionists, the Futurists and Cubists via a post-impressionist and neo-primitivist style and then developed Suprematism.