In art history, realism (from Latin realis 'concerning the thing'; res: "thing, thing") refers to a new conception of art that began in Europe in the mid-19th century and turned against representations of classicism and romanticism.
The appropriation of reality by the artist and its subsequent transformation into a work of art as well as its political connotation are characteristic of realism. It propagates everydayness and objectivity.
Its best-known representative was the French painter Gustave Courbet (1819-1877), who appropriated the concept of realist art, which was still very vague and imprecisely defined at the time, and used it for his art because of its provocative effect. The content of his works had a formative effect on the term realism. Courbet's main concern was to create living art by drawing on his knowledge of (artistic) tradition and his own individuality.