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Mannerism (from Italian maniera' "manner", "style", "manner") is an art-historical term for a style or epoch that extends roughly in the period between 1520 (Raphael's death) and 1600, outside Italy even after 1600. Mannerism was originally based on the idea that an artist should develop and emphasise his very own style, the maniera. In doing so, all technical possibilities are exhausted to achieve an extreme design.
Depending on the definition, it is a form of late Renaissance or a transitional style between Renaissance and Baroque that originated in Italy, with centres in Rome and Florence. Mannerist works were produced especially in painting, sculpture and architecture, but also in literature and music. Literary works can generally be classified as Mannerist if they were created between the mid-16th century and 1630.
At the same time, the generation that followed the masters of the High Renaissance developed individual tendencies in Florence and Rome around 1520 that were later called Mannerism.

1520-1610

Late Renaissance or Mannerism

At the same time, the generation that followed the masters of the High Renaissance developed individual tendencies in Florence and Rome around 1520 that were later called Mannerism.
The departure from the ideal of harmony in the works of Jacopo da Pontormo, Rosso Fiorentino, Giulio Romano, Parmigianino is partly an expression of their artistic interest in aesthetic effect, among other things. Agnolo Bronzino, a master of detached analytical portraiture, and the painter and art historian Giorgio Vasari were among the leading exponents of Italian Mannerism. In Venice, Jacopo Tintoretto's mannerist-inspired and richly animated painting was an exception.
The new Italian maniera also influenced painters outside Italy. In the Netherlands, Frans Floris and Martin van Heemskerck were among the leading Mannerist painters. A centre of late Mannerism was the court of Rudolph II in Prague, where Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Jan Vermeyen, Adrian de Vries, Ottavio Miseroni (1567-1624), Bartholomäus Spranger, Hans von Aachen and Joseph Heintz, among others (so-called Rudolphine art) and helped develop a style that impressed above all through elegance.
In Spain, the works of El Greco reflect an intense religiosity and mysticism.

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