Cubism is a style in art history. It emerged from an avant-garde movement in painting from 1906 in France. Its most important founders are Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Other representatives are Juan Gris and the Puteaux group, in particular Fernand Léger, Marcel Duchamp and Robert Delaunay, to whom Orphism goes back.
Analytical and synthetic cubism developed from so-called early cubism. Cubism replaced Fauvism in France. Cubism did not have its own theory or manifesto. Together with Fauvism, Cubism ushered in Classical Modernism. At the beginning of the First World War in 1914, the movement began to dissolve.
From today's perspective, Cubism represents the most revolutionary innovation in 20th century art. Cubism created a new order of thought in painting. The bibliography on Cubism is more extensive than on any other style in modern art. The influence of Cubist works on subsequent styles was very great.
Cubism also spread to sculpture, giving rise to Cubist sculpture. The artists found further fields of activity in architecture and music as well as in film.
The word cubism is derived from the French cube or Latin cubus for cube. Charles Morice used the term in an article of 16 April 1909 in the Mercure de France on Braque's paintings from the Salon des Indépendants. Louis Vauxcelles then established the term cubisme in his report on Braque's works at the 1909 Salon. From then on, the most recent paintings by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were assigned to the newly created style. According to Guillaume Apollinaire, Henri Matisse had first spoken of "petits cubes" when viewing a landscape painting by Braque in autumn 1908.