The State Bauhaus, now usually just Bauhaus, was an art school founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919. In terms of type and conception, it was something completely new at the time, as the Bauhaus represented an amalgamation of art and craft. Today, the historic Bauhaus represents the most influential educational institution in the field of architecture, art and design in the 20th century. The Bauhaus existed in parallel with and during the Weimar Republic from 1919 to 1933, and is today regarded worldwide as the home of the avant-garde of Classical Modernism in all fields of liberal and applied arts and architecture. The resonance of the Bauhaus continues to this day and significantly shapes the image of modernist movements.
Bauhaus - The State Bauhaus
The Bauhaus came into being in Weimar through the merger of the Grand Ducal Saxon School of Art Weimar with the Grand Ducal Saxon School of Applied Arts Weimar, founded by Henry van de Velde in 1907. It became the direct precursor of the Bauhaus, which then began its work in van de Velde's school buildings. In 1925, it moved to Dessau - from 1926 in the Bauhaus Dessau building. In 1932, the Bauhaus had to move to Berlin; it was closed in 1933.
The influence of the Bauhaus was so significant that colloquially the term Bauhaus is often equated with modernism in architecture and design. In this context, lay people often speak of the Bauhaus style, but it is problematic, both from the point of view of architectural science and art history, to view the developments at the Bauhaus in isolation and to use Bauhaus as a stylistic term (for example, as an architectural style or furniture style). The designs and works of the teachers and students at the Bauhaus are rather seen as part of longer-term and also transnational currents and are classified under terms such as Functionalism, Classic Modernism, New Objectivity, International Style or New Building.
At the Bauhaus, the traditionally separate fields of fine arts, applied arts and performing arts were combined on the basis of the school's own concept, which in turn had a strong impact on painting, performing arts and music.